Clown horror masker
As a culture of scattered islands and peninsulars, melanesian mask forms have developed in a highly diversified fashion, with a great deal of variety in their construction and aesthetic. 31 In Papua new guinea, six metre-high totem masks are placed to protect the living from spirits; whereas the duk-duk and tubuan masks of New guinea are used to enforce social codes by intimidation. They are conical masks, made from cane and leaves. 32 North America Kwakwaka'wakw, baleen Whale mask, 19th century, brooklyn Museum a cherokee ceremonial mask made of wood. Kwakwaka'wakw ritual mask (painted wood, fiber, and cord) Arctic coastal groups have tended towards simple religious practice but a highly evolved and rich mythology, especially concerning hunting. In some areas, annual shamanic ceremonies involved masked dances and these strongly abstracted masks are arguably the most striking artifacts produced in this region. Inuit groups vary widely and do not share a common huidzorg mythology or language. Not surprisingly their mask traditions are also often different, although their masks are often made out of driftwood, animal skins, bones, and feathers. See also: Masks among Eskimo peoples Pacific Northwest coastal indigenous groups were generally highly skilled woodworkers. Their masks were often master-pieces of carving, sometimes with movable jaws, or a mask within a mask, and parts moved by pulling cords. The carving of masks was an important feature of wood craft, along with many other features that often combined the utilitarian with the symbolic, such as shields, canoes, poles, and houses. Woodland tribes, especially in the north-East and around the Great lakes, cross-fertilized culturally with one another. The Iroquois made spectacular wooden false face masks, used in healing ceremonies and carved from living trees.
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Other masks that have exaggerated long faces and broad foreheads symbolize the soberness of one's duty that comes with power. War masks are also popular. The Grebo of the ivory coast and Liberia carve masks with round eyes to represent alertness and anger, with the straight nose to represent unwillingness to retreat. 30 Today, the qualities of African art are beginning to be more understood and appreciated. However, most African masks are now being produced for the tourist trade. Although they often show skilled craftsmanship, they nearly always lack the spiritual character of the traditional tribal masks. Oceania the variety and beauty of the masks of Melanesia are almost as highly belgie developed as in Africa. It is a culture where ancestor worship is dominant and religious ceremonies are devoted to ancestors. Inevitably, many of the mask types relate to use in these ceremonies and are linked with the activities of secret societies. The mask is regarded as an instrument of revelation, giving form to the sacred. This is often accomplished by linking the mask to an ancestral presence, and thus bringing the past into the present.
masks and perform the dances with high stilts despite the masks representing women. One of the most beautiful representations of female beauty is the Idia 's Mask of Benin in present-day edo State of Nigeria. It is believed to have been commissioned by a king of Benin in memory of his mother. To honor his dead mother, the king wore the mask on his hip during special ceremonies. 29 The senoufo people of the ivory coast represent tranquility by making masks with eyes half-shut and lines drawn near the mouth. The temne of sierra leone use masks with small eyes and mouths to represent humility and humbleness. They represent wisdom by making bulging forehead.
Thema's met Carnaval carnavalsland
The dogon of Mali have complex religions that also have animal masks. Their three main cults use seventy-eight different types of masks. Most of the ceremonies of the dogon culture are secret, although manicure the antelope dance is shown to non-Dogons. The antelope masks are rough rectangular boxes with several horns coming out of the top. The dogons are expert agriculturists and arabia the antelope symbolizes a hard working farmer. 28 Another culture that has a very rich agricultural tradition is the bamana people of Mali. The antelope (called Chiwara ) is believed to have taught man the secrets of agriculture. Although the dogons and Bamana people both believe the antelope symbolises agriculture, they interpret elements the masks differently. To the bamana people, swords represent the sprouting of grain. Masks may also indicate a culture's ideal of feminine beauty. The masks of Punu of Gabon have highly arched eyebrows, almost almond-shaped eyes and a narrow chin.
Examples are the masquerades of the yoruba, igbo, and Edo cultures, including Egungun Masquerades and Northern Edo masquerades. The masks are usually carved with an extraordinary skill and variety by artists who will usually have received their training as an apprentice to a master carver - frequently it is a tradition that has been passed down within a family through many generations. Such an artist holds a respected position in tribal society because of the work that he or she creates, embodying not only complex craft techniques but also spiritual/social and symbolic knowledge. 27 African masks are also used in the mas or Masquerade of the caribbean Carnival. Djolé (also known as Jolé or Yolé) is a mask-dance from Temine people in sierra leone. Males wear the mask, although it does depict a female. Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers. Wood, gabon, 19th century. Many African masks represent animals. Some African tribes believe that the animal masks can help them communicate with the spirits who live in forests or open savannas. People of Burkina faso known as the Bwa and Nuna call to the spirit to stop destruction.
fashion - lifestyleMasks are a familiar and vivid element in many folk and traditional pageants, ceremonies, rituals, and festivals, and are often of an ancient origin. The mask is normally a part of a costume that adorns the whole body and embodies a tradition important to the religious and/or social life of the community as whole or a particular group within the community. Masks are used almost universally vacatures and maintain their power and mystery both for their wearers and their audience. The continued popularity of wearing masks at carnival, and for children at parties and for festivals such as Halloween are good examples. Nowadays these are usually mass-produced plastic masks, often associated with popular films, tv programmes, or cartoon characters - they are, however, reminders of the enduring power of pretence and play and the power and appeal of masks. Ritual masks Ritual masks occur throughout the world, and although they tend to share many characteristics, highly distinctive forms have developed. The function of the masks may be magical or religious; they may appear in rites of passage or as a make-up for a form of theatre. Equally masks may disguise a penitent or preside over important ceremonies; they may help mediate with spirits, or offer a protective role to the society who utilise their powers. 25 biologist Jeremy Griffith has suggested that ritual masks, as representations of the human face, are extremely revealing of the two fundamental aspects of the human psychological condition: firstly, the repression of a cooperative, instinctive self or soul; and secondly, the extremely angry state. 26 Africa see also: African tribal masks There are a wide variety of masks used in Africa. In West Africa, masks are used in masquerades that form part of religious ceremonies enacted to communicate with spirits and ancestors.
19 Yup'ik masks could be small three-inch finger masks, but also ten-kilo masks hung from the ceiling or carried by several people. 20 Masks have been created with plastic surgery for mutilated soldiers. 21 Masks in various forms (sacred, practical, or playful) have played a crucial historical role in the development of understandings about "what it means to be human because they permit the imaginative experience of "what it is like" to be transformed into a different identity. 22 Not all cultures have known the use of masks, but most of them have. 23 Masks in performance mosaic with "Comedy mask" (Old Slave villa in Centocelle/Rome (Italy 2nd century ad, ( Altes Museum ) Throughout the world, masks are used for their expressive power as a feature of masked performance - both ritually and in various theatre traditions. The ritual and theatrical definitions of mask usage frequently overlap and merge but still provide a useful basis for categorisation. The image of juxtaposed donna Comedy and Tragedy masks are widely used to represent the performing Arts, and specifically Drama. In Ancient Rome, the word persona meant 'a mask it also referred to an individual who had full Roman citizenship. A citizen could demonstrate his or her lineage through imagines, death masks of the ancestors. These were wax eyes casts kept in a lararium, the family shrine. Rites of passage, such as initiation of young members of the family, or funerals, were carried out at the shrine under the watch of the ancestral masks. At funerals, professional actors would wear these masks to perform deeds of the lives of the ancestors, 24 thus linking the role of mask as a ritual object and in theatre.
Horror, film Maskers-koop goedkope
10 At the neanderthal Roche-cotard site in France, a flintstone likeness of a face was found which is about 35,000 years old, but it is not clear that it was intended as a mask. 11 In the book of Genesis, one can read island how Adam and eve used fig leaves to cover "their nakedness" after eating the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil. 12 "The masquerade motif appears in the bible on two different levels: an attempt to fool people and an attempt to fool God." 13 What shaped Judaic ritual was an "absolute prohibition against fashioning a statue or a mask originating with the second Commandment. 14 In the cult of Shiva, found in Anatolia from circa 6,000 bc, the young, naked ithyphallic god appears in a horned mask. 15 In the Greek bacchanalia and the dionysus cult, which involved the use of masks, the ordinary controls on behaviour were temporarily suspended, and people cavorted in merry revelry outside their ordinary rank or status. René guénon claims that in the roman saturnalia festivals, the ordinary roles were often inverted. Sometimes a slave or a criminal was temporarily granted the insignia and status of royalty, only to be killed after the festival ended. 16 The carnival of Venice, in which all are equal behind their masks, dates back to 1268. 17 The use of carnivalesque masks in the jewish Purim festivities probably originated in the late 15th century, although some jewish authors claim it has always been part of Judaic tradition. 18 The north American Iroquois tribes used masks for healing purposes (see false face society ). In the himalayas, masks functioned above all as mediators of supernatural forces.
This in turn is of uncertain origin — perhaps from a germanic source akin to English "mesh but perhaps from mask- "black a borrowing from a pre-Indo-european language. 3 One german author claims the word "mask" is originally derived from the Spanish más que la cara (literally, "more than the face" or "added face which evolved to "máscara while the Arabic "maskharat" - referring to the buffoonery which is possible only by disguising. 4 Other related forms are hebrew masecha "mask arabic maskhara "he ridiculed, he mocked masakha "he transfomed" ( transitive ). History The use of masks in rituals or ceremonies is a very ancient human practice across the world, 5 although masks can also be worn for protection, in hunting, in sports, in feasts, or in wars or simply used as ornamentation. 6 Some ceremonial or decorative masks were not designed to be worn. Although the religious use of masks has waned, masks are used sometimes in drama therapy or psychotherapy. 7 Ancient masks One of the challenges in anthropology is finding the precise derivation of human culture and early activities, with the invention and use of the mask only one area of unsolved inquiry. The use of masks dates back several millennia. It is conjectured that the first masks may have generally been used by primitive people to associate the wearer with some kind of unimpeachable authority, such as "the gods" or to otherwise lend credence to the person's claim on a given social role. The oldest masks that have been discovered are 9,000 years old, being held by the musée "Bible et Terre sainte" (Paris and the Israel Museum (Jerusalem). 8 Most probably the practice of masking is much older the earliest known anthropomorphic artwork is circa 30,00040,000 years old 9 but insofar as it involved the use of war-paint, leather, vegetative vacatures material, or wooden masks, the masks probably have not been preserved (they are.
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For other uses, see, mask (disambiguation). This stone mask from the pre-ceramic neolithic period dates to 7000 bc and is probably the oldest mask in the world (. Musée de la bible et de la terre sainte papierkrattler masks at the narrensprung 2005 Carnival parade, ravensburg, germany, a mask is an object normally worn on the face, typically for protection, disguise, performance, or entertainment. Masks have been used since antiquity for both ceremonial and practical purposes. They are usually worn on the face, although they may also be positioned for effect elsewhere on the wearer's will body. Australia, giant totem masks cover the body, while, inuit women use finger masks during storytelling nijmegen and dancing. Etymology, the word "mask" appeared in English in the 1530s, from. Middle French masque "covering to hide or guard the face derived in turn from. Italian maschera, from, medieval Latin masca "mask, specter, nightmare". 2, this word is of uncertain origin, perhaps from. Arabic maskharah "buffoon from the verb sakhira "to ridicule". However, it may also come from Provençal mascarar "to black (the face (or the related Catalan mascarar, old French mascurer ).